“Passage of humic acids (HAs) through the digestive tract

“Passage of humic acids (HAs) through the digestive tract of the earthworm, Eisenia fetida andrei, resulted in a decrease in molecular masses of the HAs. The effect of earthworm-modified HAs on individual bacteria and on bacterial communities as a whole is different from the effect of native HAs. Modified HA probably induces and regulates microbial successions in soils and composts in a different manner

than the native HA, suppressing or stimulating different groups of microorganisms. These results may explain why the positive effects of commercial humates in real soil ecosystems, unlike model communities, attenuate rapidly.”
“One dimensional W/WO2.72 heterostructures were successfully synthesized using WO3 as the raw material by a simple two-step chemical vapor deposition process. The morphology and microstructure of the W/WO2.72 heterostuctures AG-014699 mouse were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and

transmission electron microscopy. The results indicate that the long and straight central axial W whiskers grow along [1 1 0] direction, while the branched WO2.72 nanowires grow on the side surface of the W whiskers along the radial direction, with [0 1 0] as the growth direction. The as-synthesized heterostuctures exhibit enhanced field emission property over the single W whiskers, SYN-117 solubility dmso and could be used as a candidate for field-emission devices and ultrahigh sensitivity sensors due to their unique composition and structure. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Goal scoring represents the ultimate purpose of soccer and this is achieved when players perform accurate kicks. The purpose EPZ5676 nmr of the present study was to compare accurate and inaccurate soccer kicks aiming to top and bottom targets. Twenty-one soccer players

performed consecutive kicks against top and bottom targets (0.5 m(2)) placed in the center of the goal. The kicking trials were categorized as accurate or inaccurate. The activation of tibialis anterior (TA), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF) and gastrocnemius muscle (GAS) of the swinging leg and the ground reaction forces (GRFs) of the support leg were analyzed. The GRFs did not differ between kicking conditions (P>0.05). There was significantly higher TA and BF and lower GAS EMG activity during accurate kicks to the top target (P<0.05) compared with inaccurate kicks. Furthermore, there was a significantly lower TA and RF activation during accurate kicks against the bottom target (P<0.05) compared with inaccurate kicks. Enhancing muscle activation of the TA and BF and reducing GAS activation may assist players to kick accurately against top targets. In contrast, players who display higher TA and RF activation may be less accurate against a bottom target. It was concluded that muscle activation of the kicking leg represents a significant mechanism which largely contributes to soccer kick accuracy. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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