The highest antioxidant activities were related to high phenolic contents. Three behaviors were revealed; the best antioxidant capacities in Soliman at floral bud stage, followed by Takelsa and the lowest potentialities (Bouarada and Jdeida). These findings indicate that antioxidant properties of M. pulegium were respectively influenced by environment, development stage and
“Aldosterone-producing adenoma is a major subtype of primary aldosteronism. The number of cases of these adenomas, which are below the detection limit of computed tomography but diagnosed by adrenal venous sampling, has recently been increasing. However, the pathophysiology of these adenomas, especially those manifesting clinically overt
hyperaldosteronism despite their small size, remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the correlation between tumor size and the status of intratumoral SB525334 cost steroidogenic enzymes involved in aldosterone biosynthesis using immunohistochemistry. Forty patients with surgically proven aldosterone-producing adenomas were retrospectively studied. Multidetector computed tomography, adrenal venous sampling, and laparoscopic adrenalectomy were performed in all of the patients studied. The tumor area at the maximum diameter of the sections was precisely measured by ImageJ software. The status of the steroidogenic enzymes was immunohistochemically Sonidegib datasheet analyzed, and the findings were evaluated according to the H-score system, based on both the number of immunopositive cells and relative immunointensity. Adrenal masses were not detected by computed tomography in 20 patients. Blood pressure, plasma aldosterone
concentration, urinary aldosterone excretion, and the number of antihypertensive agents also decreased significantly after the surgery in these patients, as well as in the patients with adenomas detectable by computed tomography. Maximum tumor area obtained LCL161 inhibitor in the specimens was significantly correlated with preoperative plasma aldosterone concentration, urinary aldosterone excretion, and the H score of 11 beta-hydroxylase and was inversely correlated with the H score of aldosterone synthase. These results demonstrated that small adenomas could produce sufficient aldosterone to cause clinically overt primary aldosteronism because of the significantly higher aldosterone synthase expression per tumor area.”
“During solution formulation study of tetrabenazine (TBZ), a dopamine depleting agent, used in chorea associated with Huntington’s disease and symptomatic treatment of hyperkinetic movement disorder it was observed a strong discoloration upon storage. We investigated this physico-chemical behavior by implementing forced degradation studies. It was observed yellowing only under Suntest light exposure of TBZ solution.
patient psychopathology using the Positive and Negative Syndrome cancer metabolism signaling pathway Scale. We showed that visuospatial/constructional abilities significantly differed by genotype but not genotype x diagnosis, and the Val allele was associated with better visuospatial/constructional performance in both schizophrenic patients and healthy controls. Attention performance showed a significant genotype by diagnosis effect. Met allele-associated attention impairment was specific to schizophrenic patients and not shown in healthy controls. In the patient group, partial correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation between serum BDNF and the RBANS total score. Furthermore, the RBANS total score showed a statistically significant BDNF level x genotype interaction. We demonstrated an association between the BDNF Met variant and poor visuospatial/constructional performance. Furthermore, the BDNF Met variant may be specific to attentional decrements in schizophrenic patients. The association between decreased BDNF serum levels and selleck chemical cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is dependent
on the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism.”
“Aim: The retinal-mapping program of Stratus optical coherence tomography (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA) calculates the retinal volume of the central region between the retinal surface and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). This study evaluates the retinal-mapping program for studies dealing with AMD.\n\nMethods: The scans of both eyes of patients examined from August to October 2006 because of macular degeneration were evaluated retrospectively. Independent examiners tested whether the two lines indicating the retinal surface and the RPE were positioned correctly by the threshold algorithm that corresponded with correct measurements.\n\nResults: The scans of 233 eyes of 117 patients were evaluated (39.3% were men and 60.7% women, with a mean age of 76.9 years). Overall, in 57.1% both lines were positioned correctly. False-positioned lines were recorded in 9.0% due to low scan quality and in 33.9% due to a
doubled or interrupted hyper-reflective GNS-1480 band of the RPE. Threshold algorithm misinterpretation was significantly more frequent in occult lesions with and without fibrosis than in non-exudative lesions, and were significantly correlated to distance acuity (p < 0.0001).\n\nConclusion: The retinal-mapping program for examination of AMD provided correct results in only 57.1% of eyes. A manual correction of false-positioned lines would be needed to improve accuracy.”
“To examine the phylogenetic relationships of Koenigia sensu lato (Polygonaceae), 43 samples representing all species of Koenigia and closely related taxa (e.g., Aconogonon, Bistorta, and Persicaria) were sequenced for nuclear ITS and four plastid regions (tmL-F, atpB-rbcL, rbcL, and rpl32-trnL((UAG))).
\n\nDESIGN Adult and adolescent dosing and drug clearance data were obtained from FDA-approved drug labels and publicly available databases containing Kinase Inhibitor Library reviews of pediatric trials submitted to the FDA. Dosing information was compared for products with concordant indications for adolescent and adult patients. Adolescent drug clearance was predicted from adult pharmacokinetic data by using allometric scaling and compared with observed values.\n\nMAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Adolescent and adult dosing information and drug clearance.\n\nRESULTS There were 126 unique products with pediatric studies
submitted to the FDA since the FDA Amendments Act of 2007, of which 92 had at least 1 selleck compound adolescent indication concordant
with an adult indication. Of these 92 products, 87 (94.5%) have equivalent dosing for adults and adolescent patients. For 18 of these 92 products, a minimum weight or body surface area threshold is recommended for adolescents to receive adult dosing. Allometric scaling predicted adolescent drug clearance with an overall mean absolute percentage error of 17.0%.\n\nCONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Approved adult and adolescent drug dosing is equivalent for 94.5% of products with an adolescent indication studied since the FDA Amendments Act of 2007. Allometric scaling may be a useful tool to avoid unnecessary dedicated pharmacokinetic studies in the adolescent population during pediatric drug development, although each development program in adolescents requires a full discussion of drug dosing with the FDA.”
“To clarify the significance GSK3326595 of post-transplant serum ferritin (SF), we retrospectively assessed pre- and post-transplant SF. Among 256 patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) for hematologic malignancies between 2000 and 2011, those who had relapsed within 1 year were excluded, and 110 patients surviving for more than 1
year were included in the analysis. The cut-off value of SF was 1000 ng/mL, and four pre- and post-SF groups were defined: low-low (n = 62), low-high (n = 12), high-low (n = 13) and high-high (n = 23). Outcomes at 5 years for each group were as follows: overall survival (OS) 88.2, 38.1, 92.3 and 76.7%, respectively, p = 0.004, and non-relapse mortality (NRM) 11.3, 53.6, 7.7 and 18.9%, respectively, p = 0.037. Patients receiving larger transfusion volumes or developing chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) demonstrated higher 1-year SF values. In multivariate analysis for OS and NRM, low-high SF remained a significant predictor of OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.49, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10-11.0, p = 0.032) and NRM (HR = 2.95, 95% CI: 1.04-8.36, p = 0.041). These results suggest that the elevation of SF at 1 year after SCT, which may reflect transfusion and the development of chronic GVHD, may have an aggravating influence on outcomes after SCT.
During the winter/spring season of 2011, Arctic ozone in the 19-21 km altitude region was observed to be more than 70% less than typical values. In the winter/spring season of 2012, on the other hand, Arctic conditions were overall much warmer than in 2011, and no evidence of significant ozone loss was seen above BIX 01294 datasheet the Asiatic regions of the Russian Federation. The aim of the article is to describe which and where these measurements
were carried out and illustrate their performances by some examples of ozone data measured in western Siberia, Russia, such as that which occurred in the winter/spring season of 2011.”
“A novel design of Bi2S3 nanoparticles with a coating of mesoporous silica (BMSN) is obtained by a surfactant induced condensation method. It was found that BMSNs exhibited a high doxorubicin (DOX) loading efficiency of 45 wt% and pH-responsive controlled drug release owing to the electrostatic interaction between silanol surface and DOX molecules. The
cell viability results demonstrated the encapsulation of DOX into BMSNs could lead to significantly enhanced therapeutic effect against multidrug-resistance cancer cells compared to that of free DOX drug. Furthermore, the comparable study of tumor growth by different treatments demonstrated that the introduction of BMSNs in the X-ray therapy could lead to higher therapeutic effect, with just 2.10-fold increase in tumor volume through 24 days, in comparison to 4.40-fold increase
for X-ray Selleckchem CHIR99021 beams treatment alone. Meanwhile, the in vitro interstitial radiotherapy experiments demonstrated that the cell inhibiting effect of P-32 interstitial radiotherapy combined with BMSNs (50 mu g/mL) was 1.55-fold higher than that of P-32 alone. Selleckchem GW786034 Significantly, it is notable that the simultaneous chemo- and interstitial radiotherapy based on BMSNs could tremendously increase the therapeutic effect compared to those treatment alone. More importantly, the in vivo P-32 radiotherapy in conjunction with BMSNs was proved to present a significantly eradication of the tumor volumes by an average of 21% reduction to its initial values, in comparison to 2.01-fold increase in case of P-32 treatment alone. Thus, it is expected that the BMSNs could be applied as a highly efficient multifunctional nanosystem to realize the enhanced chemo- and radiotherapy in the further clinical applications. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“To facilitate the genetic analysis of muscle assembly and maintenance, we have developed a method for efficient RNA interference (RNAi) in Drosophila primary cells using double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs). First, using molecular markers, we confirm and extend the observation that myogenesis in primary cultures derived from Drosophila embryonic cells follows the same developmental course as that seen in vivo.
“Baker’s asthma is a frequent occupational allergic disease caused mainly by inhalation of cereal flour, particularly wheat flour.
This review deals with the current diagnosis and immunomodulatory treatments, as well as the role of wheat allergens as molecular tools to enhance management and knowledge of this disease. The review also discusses the current status of several salt-soluble proteins (albumins and globulins)-cereal alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors, peroxidase, thioredoxin, nonspecific lipid transfer selleck inhibitor protein, serine proteinase inhibitor, and thaumatin-like protein as well as salt-insoluble storage proteins (prolamins, namely, gliadins and glutenins) as allergens associated with baker’s asthma. Finally, current limitations to using these proteins as molecular tools for diagnosis and immunotherapy are highlighted.”
“Introduction:\n\nThe aim of this study is to determine whether postoperative
delirium is associated with dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF-1) responses following acute systemic inflammation.\n\nMethods:\n\nPlasma levels of SNX-5422 molecular weight cortisol, IGF-1, C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and IL-10 were measured before and after surgery in 101 patients 60 years without dementia undergoing elective hip arthroplasty. Participants were assessed with confusion assessment method and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision; DSM-IV-TR) postoperatively and 37 patients fulfilled the DSM-IV-TR criteria for delirium.\n\nResults:\n\nPreoperative plasma cortisol levels were similar in delirium and nondelirium groups (405.37 +/- 189.04 vs 461.83 +/- 219.39; P = .22). Participants with delirium had higher postoperative cortisol levels (821.67 +/- 367.17 vs 599.58 +/- 214.94; P = .002) with enhanced postoperative elevation in relation to baseline (1.9-
vs 1.5-fold; P = .004). The plasma levels of IGF1 did not differ in delirium and nondelirium groups before (18.12 +/- 7.58 vs 16.8 +/- 7.86; P = .477) and following surgery (13.39 +/- 5.94 vs 11.12 +/- 6.2; P = .639), but the levels increased in relation to baseline more frequently in patients who developed delirium (24.3% vs 7.8%; AL3818 purchase P = .034). The magnitude of postoperative cortisol elevation correlated with IL-6 (P = .485; P = .002), IL-8 (P = .429; P = .008), and IL-10 (P = .544; P < .001) only in patients with delirium.\n\nConclusions:\n\nHypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperresponsiveness and a less frequent suppression of the GH/IGF-1 axis in response to acute stress are possibly involved in delirium pathophysiology.”
“Localization is a fundamental challenge for any network of nodes, in particular when the nodes are in motion and no reference nodes are available.
The inhibition was modestly enhanced by hydrophobic substituents on the catechol. The 1:1 vanadate complexes are considerably better inhibitors of the P99 beta-lactamase than 1:1 complexes of catechol with boric acid and are likely to contain penta- or hexacoordinated vanadium rather than tetracooordinated.
Molecular modeling showed that a pentacoordinated 1: 1 vanadate-catechol complex readily fits into the class C beta-lactamase active site with coordination to the nucleophilic serine hydroxyl oxygen. Such complexes may resemble the pentacoordinated transition states of phosphyl transfer, a reaction also catalyzed by beta-lactamases.”
“In this study, we used red cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity to screen for G6PD-deficient
individuals in 373 unrelated asymptomatic adult men who CX-6258 mw were working with insecticides ( organophosphorus and carbamate) in dengue prevention programs in 27 cities in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Twenty-one unrelated male children suspected of having erythroenzymopathy who were attended at hospitals in Sao Paulo city were also studied. Fifteen of the 373 adults and 12 of the 21 children were G6PD deficient. G6PD gene mutations were investigated in these G6PD-deficient individuals by using PCR-RFLP, PCR-SSCP analysis and DNA sequencing. Twelve G6PD A-202A/376G and two G6PD Seattle844C, as well as a new variant identified as G6PD Sao Paulo, were detected among adults, and 11 G6PD A-202A/376G and one G6PD Seattle844C were found among www.selleckchem.com/products/crenolanib-cp-868596.html children. The novel mutation c.660C > G caused the replacement of isoleucine by methionine (I220M) in a region near the dimer interface of the molecule. The conservative nature of this mutation ( substitution of a nonpolar aliphatic amino acid for another one) could explain why there was no corresponding
change in the loss of G6PD activity (64.5% of normal activity in both cases).”
“Background: The aim of this study was to GSK1210151A order identify predictors of repeated admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) of patients who underwent cardiac surgery procedures.\n\nMaterial/Methods: This retrospective study analyzed 169 patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) between January 2009 and December 2010. The case group contained 54 patients who were readmitted to the ICU during the same hospitalization and the control group comprised 115 randomly selected patients.\n\nResults: Logistic regression analysis revealed that independent predictors for readmission to the ICU after CABG were: older age of patients (odds ratio [OR] 1.04; CI 1.004-1.08); body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m(2) (OR 2.55; CI 1.31-4.97); EuroSCORE II >3.9% (OR 3.56; CI 1.59-7.98); non-elective surgery (OR 2.85; CI 1.37-5.95); duration of operation >4 h (OR 3.44; CI 1.54-7.69); bypass time >103 min (OR 2.5; CI 1.37-4.57); mechanical ventilation >530 min (OR 3.98; CI 1.82-8.
We determined the prevalence of self-reported depression and memory dysfunction in ARDS survivors.\n\nMethods: Six to 48 (median 22) months after ICU discharge, we administered selleck instruments assessing depression symptoms (Beek Depression Inventory-II [BDI-II]) and memory dysfunction (Memory Assessment Clinics Self-Rating Scale [MAC-S]) to 82 ARDS patients who were enrolled in a prospective cohort study in four university-affiliated ICUs.\n\nResults: Sixty-one (74%), 64 (78%), and 61 (74%) patients fully
completed the BDI-II, MAGS (Ability subscale), and MAGS (Frequency of Occurrence subscale) instruments. Responders (similar to nonresponders) were young (median 42 years, interquartile range [IQR] 35 to 56), with high admission illness severity
and organ dysfunction. The median BDI-11 score was 12 (IQR 5 to 25). Twenty-five (41%) patients reported moderate-severe depression symptoms and were less likely to return to work than those with minimal-mild symptoms (8/25 [32%] vs 25/36 [69%]; p = 0.005). Median MAGS (Ability) and MAGS (Frequency BV-6 research buy of Occurrence) scores were 76 (IQR 61 to 93) and 91 (IQR 77 to 102), respectively; 8%, 16%, and 20% scored > 2, > 1.5, and > 1 SD(s), respectively, below age-adjusted population norms for each subscale. BDI-II and MAGS scores were negatively correlated (Spearman coefficient -0.58 and -0.50 for Ability and Frequency of Occurrence subscales, respectively; p < 0.0001). Univariable analyses showed no demographic or illness-severity predictors of BDI-II (including the Cognitive subscale) or MAGS (both subscales); results were similar when restricted to patients whose primary language was English.\n\nConclusions: ARDS survivors report a high prevalence of depression symptoms
and a lower prevalence of memory dysfunction 6 to 48 months after ICU discharge. Depression symptoms may hinder the return to work, or patients may report these symptoms because of inability to re-enter the workforce.”
“Context: Erectile dysfunction (ED) and premature ejaculation (PE) are the two most prevalent male sexual dysfunctions.\n\nObjective: To present the updated version of 2009 European Association of Urology OSI-906 datasheet (EAU) guidelines on ED and PE.\n\nEvidence acquisition: A systematic review of the recent literature on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ED and PE was performed. Levels of evidence and grades of recommendation were assigned.\n\nEvidence synthesis: ED is highly prevalent, and 5-20% of men have moderate to severe ED. ED shares common risk factors with cardiovascular disease. Diagnosis is based on medical and sexual history, including validated questionnaires. Physical examination and laboratory testing must be tailored to the patient’s complaints and risk factors. Treatment is based on phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is), including sildenafil, tadalafil, and vardenafil. PDE5-Is have high efficacy and safety rates, even in difficult-to-treat populations such as patients with diabetes mellitus.
We detected a total of 27 QTLs that accounted for 2.49-8.54% of the total phenotypic variance. Nine common QTLs across multi-marker joint analysis and composite interval mapping showed high stability, while one QTL was environment-specific and three were epistatic. We also identified several genomic segments that are associated with multiple traits. Our results describe the genetic basis of rice tiller development, enable further marker-assisted selection in rice cultivar development, and provide useful information for rice production management.”
“The prime-boost response induced by
different combinations of four H5N1 vaccines (NIBRG-14 (clade 1), Indo05/2005(H5N1)/PR8-IBCDC-RG2 (clade 2.1), A/Bar-Headed Goose/Qinhai Lake/1A/05 SJ163222 (clade 2.2), and Anhui01/2005(H5N1)-PR8-IBCDC-RG5 GS-7977 purchase (clade 2.3.4)) was evaluated in mice. Clade 1-primed BALB/c mice showed a booster response ARS-1620 price to all of the other three H5N1 vaccines. Cade 2.2
vaccine was also a good priming vaccine. However, mice primed with clade 2.1 or clade 2.3.4 vaccine did not respond to booster injection with clade 1 vaccine, suggesting that priming might actually inhibit the booster response with some combinations of vaccines belonging to different clades. Analysis of the mechanism involved showed that lymphocytes from primed mice secreted comparable amounts of cytokines with any combination of priming and booster vaccines. Therefore, impairment of B cell immunity specific to certain booster strains may have PF-562271 datasheet been involved. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Chemotherapy-induced thrombotic microangiopathy is a severe illness that has occurred in a small number of patients treated with
carboplatin and combination of docetaxel and trastuzumab chemotherapy. We describe herein the case of a patient with stage IIB breast cancer who developed thrombotic microangiopathy after five cycles of carboplatin, docetaxel, and trastuzumab.”
“We report a 59-year-old woman who had Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) with hypothyroidism. A solid hypervascularized nodule in the right lobe was detected by color flow doppler sonography (CFDS). Thyroid (99m)Tc pertechnetate scintigraphy revealed a hot area in the right lobe. After three months, thyroid function tests also revealed hypothyroidism and (131)I scintigraphy was similar to the previous scintigraphy. No nodular or hypervascularized lesion in the right lobe could be identified at the sixth month of L-T4 substitution therapy. In conclusion, HT may present as a single hot nodule and hypothyroidism. Imaging findings of HT should be carefully evaluated for the precise diagnosis.”
“Objective: We investigated the reasons and rates of attrition in knee osteoarthritis trials through a systematic review of randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trials.\n\nMethods: Randomized trials were identified by searches conducted in MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials.
“The treatment of upper urinary tract stone with flexible ureteroscopy is safe and efficient. According to the size and the localization of stone, it is the first-line treatment. The patient must be informed about modalities and risks of this treatment. Urines must be sterile. The fragmentation of stone is made with the energy of Laser Holmium. The knowledge of material and technique allows to obtain a complete treatment in about 80% of cases. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.”
“Isoniazid (INH) is a key drug ingredient in the fixed dose combination for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). INH is highly soluble in aqueous medium and also stable in pure form,
but it undergoes degradation when it is part of the FDC due to cross reactions. In continuation of our studies to selleck chemical Entinostat cost improve the physiochemical properties of INH, we performed a cocrystal screen with pharmaceutically acceptable molecules
selected from the generally regarded as safe (GRAS). Cocrystals with acidic conformers, such as vanillic acid (VLA), ferulic acid (FRA), caffeic acid (CFA), as well as with hydroxyl coformer resorcinol (RES), are reported. INHVLA and INHFRA are dimorphic, and INHCFA is trimorphic. Form-1 of INHFRA and INHVLA are two-dimensional isostructural. All cocrystal structures are sustained by the expected acidpyridine synthon, except the isostructural cocrystals which have the hydroxylpyridine synthon. The cocrystal forms were tested in accelerated ICH conditions of 40 degrees C and 75% RH for stability, and it was found that all the solid forms are stable for a test period of six months, except the INHRES cocrystal. Slurry conditions and grinding experiments suggest that Form-2 of INHFRA and INHVLA have good stability, and Form-1 of INHCFA is the most stable crystalline form of INH.”
To assess the quality of informed consent for patients undergoing invasive procedures and to reveal patient preferences for being informed about the potential risks of treatment and alternatives to treatment. Design: This studywas planned as a pilot buy SN-38 study. Hospitalized patients’ perceptions and expectations about the informed-consent process were explored in a general surgery department. The prepared questionnaire was completed by patients via interview. Setting: Inpatient services of the general surgery department of a large academic hospital in Istanbul, Turkey. Participants: The study population consisted of hospitalized patients in a general surgery department who underwent invasive procedures in March 2013. Main outcome measures: Recognition of consent forms by the patients, rate of patients’ recall of risks, rate of patients who were willing to be involved in decision making, and rate of patients who were satisfied with the whole decision-making process were measured. Results: All patients signed consent forms.
“Passage of humic acids (HAs) through the digestive tract of the earthworm, Eisenia fetida andrei, resulted in a decrease in molecular masses of the HAs. The effect of earthworm-modified HAs on individual bacteria and on bacterial communities as a whole is different from the effect of native HAs. Modified HA probably induces and regulates microbial successions in soils and composts in a different manner
than the native HA, suppressing or stimulating different groups of microorganisms. These results may explain why the positive effects of commercial humates in real soil ecosystems, unlike model communities, attenuate rapidly.”
“One dimensional W/WO2.72 heterostructures were successfully synthesized using WO3 as the raw material by a simple two-step chemical vapor deposition process. The morphology and microstructure of the W/WO2.72 heterostuctures AG-014699 mouse were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and
transmission electron microscopy. The results indicate that the long and straight central axial W whiskers grow along [1 1 0] direction, while the branched WO2.72 nanowires grow on the side surface of the W whiskers along the radial direction, with [0 1 0] as the growth direction. The as-synthesized heterostuctures exhibit enhanced field emission property over the single W whiskers, SYN-117 solubility dmso and could be used as a candidate for field-emission devices and ultrahigh sensitivity sensors due to their unique composition and structure. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Goal scoring represents the ultimate purpose of soccer and this is achieved when players perform accurate kicks. The purpose EPZ5676 nmr of the present study was to compare accurate and inaccurate soccer kicks aiming to top and bottom targets. Twenty-one soccer players
performed consecutive kicks against top and bottom targets (0.5 m(2)) placed in the center of the goal. The kicking trials were categorized as accurate or inaccurate. The activation of tibialis anterior (TA), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF) and gastrocnemius muscle (GAS) of the swinging leg and the ground reaction forces (GRFs) of the support leg were analyzed. The GRFs did not differ between kicking conditions (P>0.05). There was significantly higher TA and BF and lower GAS EMG activity during accurate kicks to the top target (P<0.05) compared with inaccurate kicks. Furthermore, there was a significantly lower TA and RF activation during accurate kicks against the bottom target (P<0.05) compared with inaccurate kicks. Enhancing muscle activation of the TA and BF and reducing GAS activation may assist players to kick accurately against top targets. In contrast, players who display higher TA and RF activation may be less accurate against a bottom target. It was concluded that muscle activation of the kicking leg represents a significant mechanism which largely contributes to soccer kick accuracy. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.