2 per 10 000 births), while the overall infant mortality rate was

2 per 10 000 births), while the overall infant mortality rate was 23 (95 CI 1926) higher (50.8 vs 41.4 per 10 000 births, respectively). The gestational age distribution was left-shifted in the United States relative to Canada; consequently, preterm birth rates were 8.0 and 6.0, respectively. Stillbirth and early neonatal mortality rates in the United States were lower at term gestation only. However, gestational age-specific late neonatal, post-neonatal and infant mortality rates were higher in the United States at virtually every gestation. The overall stillbirth rates (per 10 000 foetuses at risk) among Blacks and Whites in the United States, and in Canada

were 59.6, 35.0 and 38.3, respectively, whereas the corresponding selleck chemicals llc infant mortality rates were 85.6, 49.7 and 42.2, respectively.\n\nConclusions Differences in gestational age distributions and in gestational age-specific stillbirth and infant mortality in the United States and Canada underscore substantial differences in healthcare services, population health status and health policy between the two neighbouring countries.”
“P>Background\n\nSomatostatin analogues are administered to control hormone hypersecretion in acromegaly and carcinoid patients. Somatostatin analogues can increase fat in the stools, which can lead to loss

of fat-soluble vitamins. The effect of long-term somatostatin analogue use on vitamin levels Selleckchem SB202190 remains unknown.\n\nAim\n\nTo investigate the prevalence of fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies in long-term somatostatin analogue users.\n\nMethods\n\nAll acromegaly and carcinoid patients using somatostatin analogues for >= 18 months visiting the University Medical Center Groningen between December 2008 and April 2009 were eligible. Vitamin levels of fat-soluble vitamins in blood, clinical and vitamin-dependent laboratory

parameters were collected.\n\nResults\n\nIn all, 19 acromegaly learn more and 35 carcinoid patients were included. Twelve patients experienced steatorrhoea; two carcinoid patients experienced night blindness. Forty-two (78%) were deficient for one or more vitamins, and 32% (n = 17) had multiple deficiencies. Deficiencies for vitamin A, D, E, K1 and E in erythrocytes occurred in 6%, 28%, 15%, 63% and 58% of the patients. Prevalence of vitamin D, E and K1 deficiencies was similar in both patient groups. Treatment duration did not influence vitamin levels. The length of intestinal resection and age correlated negatively with vitamin A levels.\n\nConclusions\n\nFat-soluble vitamin deficiencies are frequent during long-term somatostatin analogue treatment. Therefore, fat-soluble vitamins should be monitored in these patients.”
“Context: The existing evidence on food environments and diet is inconsistent, potentially because of heterogeneity in measures used to assess diet. The objective of this review, conducted in 2012-2013, was to examine measures of dietary intake utilized in food environment research.

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